The Press Association report the following:
"Children whose mothers smoke heavily during pregnancy are more likely to become career criminals, research suggests.
Heavy smoking is linked to offending regardless of whether the child was brought up in socially deprived circumstances, a study found.
Experts from the Harvard School of Public Health in the US found an increased risk for women who smoked 20 or more cigarettes a day during pregnancy.
Their study, published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, enrolled more than 3,700 mothers between 1959 and 1966 and asked about their smoking habits during pregnancy.
In 1999/2000, when their children were aged at least 33, criminal record checks were carried out on the offspring.
The results showed that those children whose mothers smoked heavily were 31% more likely to have been arrested as those whose mothers never smoked, and were more likely to be repeat criminal offenders...."
I would have thought that if heavy smoking harms the foetus then one primary symptom would be a reduced IQ (owing to subnormal development and oxygen deprivation). However, other studies indicate that many criminals in fact have a higher than average IQ.
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